Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are biological metabolites, which have both positive and negative effects on the body. Reactive oxygen species include hydroxyl radical (OH·), superoxide anion radical (O2 -), nitric oxide (NO·) and other oxidants (such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), peroxynitrite (ONOO-) singlet oxygen (1O2), etc.). During aerobic metabolism, the main source of ROS formation is the membrane-bound NADPH oxidase complex and the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mainly complexes 1 and 3).
Negative effects of reactive oxygen species
Many articles to discuss the negative impact of ROS and its affect almost all diseases, immune diseases, like diabetes, multiple sclerosis, 4, 5, 6, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, chronic inflammation, and other deadly diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, 9, 10, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases such as alzheimer’s disease disease12 11 and Parkinson disease13 aging14, 15 (perhaps because the telomere shortening16).
The positive effects of reactive oxygen species
Matrix of metabolic enzymes
Recent knowledge of ros17-20 suggests that while they may have negative side effects at high levels, they are also important biological signaling molecules that play a therapeutic and protective role in diseases and play a key role in regulating the benefits of exercise. The figure above illustrates ROS production in mitochondria and its role in cell signal transduction.
The body’s protective mechanism
Since high levels of reactive oxygen species are closely related to the development and pathogenesis of disease, our bodies are able to clear these reactive oxygen species after they have played their beneficial signaling role. For example, the superoxide produced by mitochondria is broken down into hydrogen peroxide by superoxide dismutase and subsequently reduced to water by the glutathione peroxidase/reductase /NADPH system. The body also USES catalase, glutathione, and vitamins A, C, and E to help prevent damage caused by ros.
Reductive stress and oxidative stress
There are two opposing forces in biological systems: oxidative stress and reductive stress. When the reducing agent concentration exceeds the oxidizing agent concentration, the reducing stress will occur. This can be seen in the metabolism of ethanol (the high ratio of NADH/NAD+ to NADPH/NADP+). Reductive stress may also partly explain why high doses of traditional antioxidants are associated with increased cardiovascular disease, cancer, and absolute mortality. Recently, it has been found that aging is associated with decreased oxidation potential of ER, which damages protein folding. Cytoplasmic alcohols are more oxidizing. Thus, reductive stress may exist in one system and oxidative stress in another.
Oxidative stress is defined as when the formation and concentration of reactive oxygen species exceed the scavenging and scavenging activity of the body’s endogenous antioxidant self-defense system. Oxidative stress is associated with aging and the standard American diet. Interestingly, exercise significantly increases levels of reactive oxygen species, which can lead to oxidative stress. Therefore, people can draw the conclusion that exercise has negative side effects on health; However, exercise is known to have powerful therapeutic and protective effects. 29. Research has shown that one reason for this therapeutic effect of regular exercise is that it increases the body’s endogenous antioxidant activity, thereby reducing the absolute risk of oxidative stress causing cell damage
Antioxidants may counteract the benefits of exercise
In addition, exercise-induced ROS formation enhances insulin sensitivity 31 through ROS dependent transcription coactivators pgc1-a, pgc1-b, and transcription factor PPAR associated with diabetes mellitus. However, high intake of the traditional antioxidants vitamin C and E32 can block this pathway. Induction of ros-related PPARa, PGC1a, and PGC1b increased the expression of ros detoxification enzymes, including SOD1, SOD2, and GPx1, thus enhancing protection against various diseases caused by oxidative stress.
How much exercise?
It is unclear to what extent the frequency, duration, or intensity of exercise requires up-regulation of these endogenous antioxidant enzymes to protect against oxidative damage. However, the literature does clarify the difference between a single workout and a regular workout.
Single movement increases levels of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen. This increase in 33-35 leads to acute oxidative damage 33-37 and lower antioxidant stress capacity. 35. However, endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity increased at 34, 36, and 37, respectively, and may have increased the oxidative repair mechanism
In contrast, regular exercise was associated with an absolute decrease in reactive oxygen species
Note: This article comes from Molecular Hydrogen Institute (MHI)